|Israel Palestine US National Security World War of Terror|
The United States was born of the desire to have freedom from religious persecution and better governance through democracy. The country was developed through decades of work towards the highest principles of man. The United States has been an example and hope to all the people of the world.
Today the United States gives billions of dollars every year to one country, Israel, which actively pursues slow ethnic cleansing for religious and political purposes, murders young children , indiscriminately shells civilians, uses anti-personel weapons on civilians, practices assassination worldwide, and tortures and murders prisoners.
There is never any excuse for soldiers shooting and murdering young children armed only with stones.
There is never any excuse for using United States military hardware to indiscriminately shell civilians.
There is never any excuse for using United States money, helicopters, and missiles for assassination.
There is no excuse for Israel deliberatly killing US Navy sailors and NSA personnel on the USS liberty.
There is no excuse for the Israeli sponsored mass rape and murder in the refugee camps in Lebanon.
There is no excuse for Israel maintaining an Apartheid regime in the occupied territories.
There is no excuse for holding ten thousand Palestinian political prisoners without judicial process.
There is no excuse for using US cluster bombs on civilians in Lebanon.
There is no excuse for bombing the civilian infrastructure of Lebanon.
There is no excuse for using the evil murder of millions of Jews as an excuse to behave like Nazis.
The United States is violating its own laws, international laws which it has incorporated, and fundamental morals and human rights.
The United States is directly sponsoring terrorism, child murder, and assassination.
The rest of the world including Europeans, Asians, and Arabs think and say so.
The United States is risking its economy, and national security.
The United States must apologies for its actions, and moral citizens should immediately stop its Congress persons from annually voting billions of dollars in aid to Israel.
Those Israelis responsible for deliberately killing the 34 US Navy sailors and intelligence personnel on the USS Liberty should be brought to justice. Those US citizens that conspire to cover up the treason or high crimes against the US should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
Nations based on any exclusive religion are a danger to security.
Dangerous acts of terror are being commited by all sides.
Religion is being used to create divisiveness and war for the power and profits of a few.
Immediate action needs to be taken to stop religious bigotry and MAKE PEACE!
Please pick up the phone and call your Congress person today.
National Security and World Security
U.S. State Department Report on Human Rights
USS Liberty Deliberately Attacked by Israel Killing 34 US Navy and Intelligence Personnel
Murder and Shooting Children for Sport
Indiscriminant Shelling of Civilian Population Areas
Deprivation of Water and Resources
Right of Population Return
Destruction of Lebannon and Other Countries
Denial of Palestine State Right to Exist
The US Annually Gives Billions of Dollars of Aid to Israel
Violation of United States Laws
International Assasination Policy
Domestic Israel Assasination List
Violation of The U.S. Arms Export Control Act
Violation of International Law
Ariel Sharon War Criminal, Sabra and Shatila Refugee Camps
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 147 of The Geneva Convention
The problem is very simple. The Palestinian people have been occupied, murdered, brutalized,
starved, tortured, and ethnic cleansed by Israel since 1948. |
The US sponsors Israel with billions of dollars in military and financial aid every year. For every boatload with 50 tons of small arms that the Palestinians receive, Israel gets billions of dollars and thousands of tons of sophisticated military hardware. For every Israeli killed by a Palestinian desperate enough to blow themselves up, many Palestinians are killed by Israeli soldiers.
The US media is so biased that no mention or comparison is ever drawn. The bias, and disinformation by the US media is appalling.
|National Security and World Security|
The Arab counter-terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11 2001,
could easily be only the start of a war of terror. Weapons of mass destruction
including nuclear, biological, chemical, and dirty low tech radiation bombs
are available. The use of any of these weapons could kill many people
and devestate the world economy. It is a US National Security, and World Security
interest to immediately resolve the conflict rather than to take the risk of
perpetuating a war that only serves the political and religious interests of the US President.
|U.S. State Department Report on Human Rights|
Source: United States State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Occupied Territories - 2000
"Security forces killed 307 Palestinians and four foreign nationals and
injured at least 11,300 Palestinians and other persons during the year."
"On November 26, IDF [Israeli Defense Force] soldiers fired on nine
Palestinian youths, killing five and injuring two. The Israeli press reported
that the IDF refused an International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
request to allow medical personnel access to the injured.
Palestinian sources stated that the IDF subsequently fired on
the injured persons with helicopter gun ships."
Source: Report on Human Rights 2001
"Security forces killed at least 501 Palestinians and 1 foreign national and injured 6,300 Palestinians and other persons during the year, including innocent bystanders."
"The IDF killed another 68 Palestinians during Israeli incursions into Palestinian-controlled territory (Area A). Israeli security forces frequently impeded the provision of medical assistance to Palestinian civilians by their strict enforcement of internal closures, which reportedly contributed to at least 32 deaths."
During the 1948 war 700,000 Palestinians fled their homes. |
A June 1948 report issued by the Israeli Defense Force (the Hagana after independence) stated that "at least 55 percent of the total of the exodus was caused by our [Hagana/IDF] operations,"
Source-- Israeli army intelligence document, June 30 1948
"The emigration of Palestinian Arabs in the period 1/12/1947 - 1/6/1948."
Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.
Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 1994. p 297
|The US Annually Gives Billions of Dollars of Aid to Israel|
In 1997, the total of US grants and loan guarantees to Israel was USD 5.5 billion; ie, USD 15,068,493 per day.|
From 1949 to 1998, the US government gave USD 84.8 billion in foreign aid and other US federation grants to Israel.
"There were some fellows who refused to take part in the expulsion action,"
"Prolonged propaganda activities were required after the action, to remove the bitterness
of these [soldiers] and explain why we were obliged to undertake such a harsh and cruel action."|
--Yitzhak Rabin, talking about the 1948 war
At Deir Yassin, 254 civilians were killed, mutilated, and thrown in a well by the Irgun,|
an Israeli terrorist group, in what may or may not have been a legitimate military exercise.
Although this action was not carried out directly by the Hagana, more mainstream groups used
it as a psychological warfare tactic, using confidential sources to tell Arab leaders that
if they did not get out now, there would be terrible consequences.
Scattered Jewish terrorist groups and rogue soldiers committed occasional atrocities
and war crimes, including murder and rape of civilians.
Aharon Cizling, the Israeli minister of agriculture, went so far as to say in a closed cabinet session,
"But now Jews too have behaved like Nazis.."
|Denial of Palestine State Right to Exist|
"It must be clear, that there is no room in the country for both|
people...The only solution is a Land of Israel, without Arabs. There is no
room here for compromise... There is no way but to transfer the Arabs from here
to the neighboring countries...Not one village must be left, not one [Bedouin] tribe."
--Yosef Weitz, head of the Jewish National Funds Lands Department, 1940
|List of Domestic Israeli Assassinations|
Israel assassinated at least 49 persons since 2000 within its domestic borders using guns, bombs and helicopter missiles.
Source: Btselem.org, Assassinations List
9 November 2000, Hussein Muhammad Salim 'Abayat ,age 34 ,from Taamera ,Bethlehem ,killed by Israeli security forces helicopter missilefire aimed at his car ,in Beit Sahur ,Bethlehem District/The West Bank Other Palestinians Killed in the course of the Assassination: 'Aziza Muhammad Danun ,age 52 ,woman from Beit Sahur Rahameh Rashid Sahiin ,age 52 ,woman from Beit Sahur
22 November 2000, Jamal 'Abd al-Qader Hassan 'Abd a-Razzek ,age 33 ,from Rafah ,killed by Israeli security forces live gun- and tankfire aimed at his car at Morag Junction/The Gaza Strip Other Palestinians Killed in the course of the Assassination: 'Awani Isma'il Dahir ,age 38 ,from Rafah Naal Shahadeh a-Lidawi ,age 20 ,from Rafah
23 November 2000, Ibrahim 'Abd Al Qarim Bani 'Oda ,age 33 ,from Tamun, killed in an explosion of device planted by Israel in Nablus/The West Bank
11 December 2000, Anwar Mahmud Ahmad Himran ,age 28 ,from 'Arabeh ,Jenin District ,killed by Israeli security forces gunfire from a distance of 300 meters when standing at the university gate in Nablus/The West Bank
12 December 2000, Yusef Ahmad Mahmud Abu Sawi ,age 28 ,from Artas ,Bethlehem District ,killed by IDF sniper gunfire when standing outside his house ,in al-Khadr ,Bethlehem District/The West Bank
13 December 2000, 'Abas Ahmad al-'Awiwi ,age 27 ,killed by Israeli security forces sniper gunfire in Wadi a-Tufah Street in central Hebron in an area under Palestinian control (H-1) ,in The West Bank
14 December 2000, Hani Hussein Abu Baqra ,age 31 ,from Rafah ,Gaza ,killed when IDF soldiers stopped the car he was in and shot him ,in Gush Katif junction/The Gaza Strip Other Palestinians Killed in the course of the Assassination: Abdullah 'Isa 'Abdullah Qan'an ,age 40 ,from Khan Yunis/The Gaza Strip ,died of his wound on December 23 ,200 , Sa'ed Ibrahim Taha al-Khaghuf ,age 32 ,from Nablus ,killed by Israeli security forces gunfire in Burin ,Nablus District/The West Bank
31 December 2000, Thabat Ahmad Thabat ,age 48 ,from Ramin/Tulkarm ,killed in Tulkarm by sniper gunfire aimed at his car when he was leaving his house in Tulkarm/The West Bank
13 February 2001, Masud Hussein A'eyd ,age 50 ,from Ziton/Gaza City ,member of the Palestinian security forces ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire on the road between Gaza City and Jabalia/The Gaza Srtip
19 February 2001, Mahmud al-Madani ,age 25 ,from Balata Refugee Camp ,killed by gunfire of Israeli undercover security forces in Balata Refugee camp ,Hebron/The West Bank
2 April 2001, Muhammad 'Atawa abd al-A'al ,age 26 ,resident of Rafah ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire aimed at his car in Rafah/The Gaza Strip
5 April 2001, Iyad Mahmoud Nayef Hardan ,age 24 ,resident of Arraba ,Jenin District ,killed in an explosion in a phone booth in Arraba ,Jenin District/The West Bank
5 May 2001, Ahmed Khalil As'ad ,age 38 ,from Irtas village ,killed by IDF gunfire next to his home in Irtas ,Bethlehem District/The West Bank
12 May 2001, Mu'atasem Muhammad a-Sabeh ,age 26 ,from Jenin Refugee Camp ,killed by IDF missilefire aimed at his car in Jenin/The West Bank Another Palestinian Killed in the course of the Assassination: 'Alam Nasri 'Abd a-Razeq al-Jaludi ,age 26 ,from Kfar Faqqu'a ,Jenin District/The West Bank
25 June 2001, Osama Jawabra ,age 29 ,from Nablus ,killed in an explosion of device planted by Israel in a phone booth in Nablus/The West Bank
1 July 2001, Mouhamad Ahmad Suliman Bisharat ,age 28 ,from Tammun ,Tubas district ,killed by IDF helicopter gunfire on the car he was traveling in near Qabatiya ,Jenin district/The West Bank, Waleed Rasmi Sadeq Bisharat ,age 20 ,from Beit Dajan ,Nablus district ,killed by IDF helicopter gunfire on the car he was traveling in near Qabatiya ,Jenin district/The West Bank, Sameh Nur Dhiab Abu Huneysh ,age 22 ,from Beit Dajan ,Nablus district , killed by IDF helicopter gunfire on the car he was traveling in near Qabatiya ,Jenin district/The West Bank
13 July 2001, 'Fawwaz Sherif Badran ,age 27 ,from Tulkarm ,killed by an explosion of device planted in his car in Tulkarm/The West Bank
17 July 2001, 'Omar Sa'ade ,age 43 ,from Bethlehem ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire aimed at his home in Bethlehem/The West Bank, Taha al-'Aruj ,age 37 ,from Bethlehem ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire aimed at 'Omar Sa'ade's home in Bethlehem/The West Bank Other Palestinians Killed in the course of the Assassination: Ishaq Sa'ade ,age 51 ,from Bethlehem ,killed by IDF gunfire in Bethlehem/The West Bank Mouhamad Sa'ade ,age 30 ,from Bethlehem ,killed by IDF gunfire in Bethlehem/The West Bank
17 July 2001, 'Salah Darawzeh ,age 37 ,from Nablus ,killed by IDF missile-fire aimed at his car in Nablus/The West Bank
31 July 2001, Jamal 'Abd a-Rahman Muhammad Mansour ,age 47 ,from Balata Refugee Camp ,Nablus district ,killed by helicopter-missile fire while at an office in Nablus/The West Bank, Jamal Salim Damouni ,age 43 ,from Ein Beit al-Ma refugee camp ,Nablus district ,killed by helicopter-missile fire while at an office in Nablus/The West Bank, Uthman 'Abd al-Qader Qatanani ,age 25 ,from 'Askar Refugee Camp ,Nablus district ,killed by helicopter-missile fire while at an office in Nablus/The West Bank , 'Muhammad 'Abd al-Karim al-Bishawi ,age 28 ,from Balata Refugee Camp ,Nablus district ,killed by helicopter-missile fire while at an office in Nablus/The West Bank , Fahim Ibrahim Mustafa Dawabsheh ,age 32 ,from Nablus ,killed by helicopter-missile fire while at an office in Nablus/The West Bank , 'Omar Mansour Muhammad Mansour ,age 28 ,from Blata Refugee Camp ,Nablus district ,killed by helicopter-missile fire while at an office in Nablus/The West Bank Other Palestinians Killed in the course of the Assassination: Ashraf 'Abdel-Mun'em Khalil Abu Khader ,age 8 ,from al-Judeida,Jenin district/The West Bank Bilal 'Abd al-Mun'em Khalil Abu Khader ,age 10 ,from al-Judeida,Jenin district/The West Bank
5 August 2001, 'Amer Mansur al-Khudeiri ,age 23 ,from Tulkarm ,killed by IDFhelicopter-missile fire in Tulkarm/The West Bank
10 August 2001, 'Imad Abu Sneineh ,age 25 ,from Hebron ,killed by IDF undercover unit gunfire from short range ,in Hebron/The West Bank
22 August 2001 Palestinian Killed in the course of an Assassination Attempt: Bilal al-Ghoul ,age 23 ,from Gaza ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire aimed at a convoy of cars ,during an attempt to assassinate his father ,'Adnan al-Ghoul ,north of el-Bureij refugee camp ,Dier al-Balah district/The Gaza Strip
27 August 2001, Abu 'Ali Mustafa ,age 63 ,from Ramallah ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire aimed his office in Ramallah/The West Bank
6 September 2001, 'Omar Subuh ,age 22 ,from Tulkarm ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire in Tulkarm/The West Bank , Mustafa 'Anbas ,age 19 ,from Tulkarm ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire in Tulkarm/The West Bank
14 October 2001, 'Abd a-Rahman Sa'id Hamed ,age 33 ,from Qalqilia ,killed by IDF sniper gunfire while on the roof of his house in Qalqilia/The West Bank
15 October 2001, Ahmad Marshud ,age 29 ,from Nablus ,killed by an explosion caused by the Israeli security forces ,while in his car ,in Nablus/The West Bank
16 October 2001, Iyad Lafi al-Hares ,from Rafah ,killed by an explosion caused by the Israeli security forces ,in Rafah/The Gaza Strip
18 October 2001, 'Atef 'Abayat ,age 26 ,from Bethlehem ,killed by an explosion caused by the Israeli security forces ,while in his car ,on the road between Beit Sahur and Bethlehem/The West Bank , 'Isa 'Atef Khatib 'Abayat ,age 28 ,from Bethlehem ,killed in an explosion caused by Israeli security forces ,while traveling in 'Isa 'Abayat's car ,on the road between Beit Sahur and Bethlehem/The West Bank , Jamal 'Abdallah 'Abayat ,age 35 ,from Bethlehem ,killed in an explosion caused by Israeli security forces ,while traveling in 'Isa 'Abayat's car ,on the road between Beit Sahur and Bethlehem/The West Bank
22 October 2001, Ayman Halawa ,age 26 ,from Nablus ,killed by an explosion caused by the Israeli security forces ,while traveling in his car ,in Nablus/The West Bank
31 October 2001, 'Abdallah Jarushi ,age 42 ,from Tulkarm ,killed by IDf helicopter-missile fire aimed his car in Tulkarm/The West Bank
2 November 2001, Yasser 'Asira ,age 25 ,from Tell ,Nablus district ,killed by IDF gunfire between 'Anabta and Tulkarm ,Tulkarm district/The West Bank , Fahmi Abu 'Aysha ,age 28 ,from Nablus ,killed by IDF gunfire between 'Anabta and Tulkarm ,Tulkarm district/The West Bank
22 November 200, Mahmoud a-Shuli (Abu Hanood) ,age 34 ,from 'Asira a-Shamaliya ,Nablus district ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire near al-Far'a refugee camp ,Tubas district/The West Bank , Ayman 'Awaysa ,age 34 ,from Talluza ,Nablus district ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire near al-Far'a refugee camp ,Tubas district/The West Bank , Mamoon Awaysa ,age 28 ,from Talluza ,Nablus district ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire near al-Far'a refugee camp ,Tubas district/The West Bank
10 December 2001 Palestinian Children Killed in the course of an Assassination Attempt: Burhan al-Himuni, age 3 ,from Hebron ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire during a failed assassination attempt aimed at Mouhammad Sidra ,in Hebron/The West Bank Shadi Ahmad 'Arafe ,age 13 ,from Hebron ,killed by IDF helicopter-missile fire during a failed assassination attempt aimed at Mouhammad Sidra ,in Hebron/The West Bank
14 January 2002, Ra'ed Carami, age 28, from Tulkarm, killed in an explosion of device planted by Israel in Tulkarm/The West Bank
25 January 2002, 'Adli Baker Hamdan, age 27, from Khan Younis, killed by IDF helicopter missile fire aimed at his car in Khan Younis/The Gaza Strip
|Israeli International Assasination Policy|
Written by Yael Stein
translated by Maya Johnston
Source From B'Tselem: Assinations Policy
On November 9, 2000, Israel assassinated 34-year-old Hussein .Abayat in Beit Sahur firing a missile from a helicopter gunship. In the course of this assassination, two 52- year-old women were also killed, .Aziza Muhammad Danun and Rahma Rashid Shahin. This was the first of a number of assassinations of Palestinians perpetrated by Israel in recent months.
Israel claimed responsibility for this assassination, but quickly adopted a policy of silence and in the assassinations that followed has avoided explicitly confirming or denying its involvement. However, the existence of such a policy is clearly evident in statements made by government and military officials in the press and from testimonies taken by B.Tselem.
Regarding the killing of Hussein .Abayat, OC Central Commander, Yitzhak Eitan, said: "We will continue to take action against anyone who tries to harm us." In a meeting of the Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee, Prime Minister Ehud Barak said: "If people are shooting at us and killing us . our only choice is to strike back. A country under terrorist threat must fight back." During a visit to the IDF West Bank Command Barak made similar statements: "The IDF is free to take action against those who seek to harm us." When asked whether the IDF has a "liquidation" policy Brigadier-General Beni Gantz, IDF West Bank Commander said: "You said liquidation, not me. We will initiate action as necessary. We will not stop such action as long as there is a threat."
In the meeting of the Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee on January 9, 2001, Chief of Staff Shaul Mofaz explicitly admitted that there is an assassination policy. He claimed that this policy is supported by the legal opinion of the Military Advocate General, Brigadier-General Menachem Finkelstein who determined that, "The IDF has the legal right to fight .hostile elements. in the Occupied Territories in exceptional and extraordinary cases , when the purpose is to save lives and in the absence of any other alternative."
Israel did not devise the assassination policy in the wake of the current Intifada, which began in late September 2000. It has employed this policy in the Occupied Territories and abroad for over 30 years. In an interview which appeared in Ma.ariv newspaper, Rami Gershon one of the founders of the undercover unit, described this policy as it was carried out by his unit and in other IDF units:
We liquidate. Yes, we liquidate. If I don.t liquidate Abu Jihad, or if I don.t liquidate whoever I am supposed to liquidate with the Duvdevan unit, then I.d have a bus explode and I.d have 17 kids liquidated . there, I.m using the same figure of speech . in Ramat Gan [.] liquidating wasn.t invented by the Duvdevan unit. It.s the conclusion that was drawn from special operations carried out by the IDF.s elite Special Forces unit which has been doing it in places you can.t even imagine since the day it was established [.] What.s the difference between Mossad agents and the guys at Duvdevan who deal with sewage? The Mossad guys wear suits, smell of after shave, drive BMWs and waste people in Europe.
B.Tselem has already criticized this policy, particularly following the assassinations by undercover agents of Palestinians marked "wanted" by Israeli Intelligence.
|Article 147 of The Geneva Convention|
Article 147 of the Geneva Convention IV 1949 ("Convention"), provides that:
"Grave breaches to which the preceding |
Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the present Convention:
wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment,…wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person,…wilfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in the present Convention, taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly."
|USS Liberty Deliberately Attacked by Israel Killing 34 US Navy and Intelligence Personnel|
Treason: Israel Kills 34 US Navy and Intelligence Personnel
|Violation of The US Arms Export Control Act|
US Aid to Israel: Violations of US Law|
US law prohibits the President from providing military aid to any country 'which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognised human-rights'.
Under the US Arms Export Control Act, it is illegal to use US weapons to carry out extra-judicial killings.
This act stipulates that weapons be sold to 'friendly countries solely for internal security and legitimate defense'.
Since September, the Israeli army has used attack helicopters, tanks and missiles to target Palestinian civilians, homes, forces, buildings and in demonstrations.
In its Human Rights Report, the US State Department publicly declared that the Israeli army actions were an 'excessive use of force', noting that the Israeli forces used live ammunition, even when they were not in imminent danger, and stated that Israeli military 'shelled PA institutions and Palestinian civilian areas in response to individual Palestinian attacks on Israeli civilians or settlers'. These comments clearly demonstrate that the US does not believe that these weapons are being used for the 'legitimate defense' purposes stipulated in the Arms Export Control Act.
The Israeli government's policies in the occupied Palestinian territories have been condemned by human rights organisations worldwide. In the Israeli army's 'excessive use of force' towards Palestinian civilians, and in its policy of 'state assassinations', not only is the Israeli government violating international human rights law, but in supplying military aid to such a state, the US is violating its own law.
|Universal Declaration of Human Rights|
On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly
called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated,
displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction
based on the political status of countries or territories."
Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
Article 16. (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
Article 17. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Article 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
Article 21. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Article 22. Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Article 24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
Article 27. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Article 28. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Article 29 (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 30. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
Rabbis for Human Rights