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Genocides, Politicides, and Other Mass Murder Since 1945, With Stages in 2002
[1]

[1] Those countries at Stage 7 are currently at the mass killing stage. They have active genocides or politicides, and are identified with bold type. They are erupting. The others are at various stages of dormancy (4 through 6,) but could erupt again. Civilian deaths in 2001 are separately identified. The table is organized by region. Within a region, countries are listed in order of their potential for mass killing, by stages. Not all politicides since 1945 appear on this chart because some countries where politicide has occurred have become democracies (e.g. East Germany, Poland, Romania, Mongolia) and are not now at stage 4 or above.

2002 Gregory H. Stanton, Genocide Watch

 

 

 

AFRICA

 

 

 

NATION

YEARS OF EPISODES SINCE 1945

CUMULATIVE CIVILIAN DEATH TOLL

MAJOR

KILLERS

MAIN DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2002

Burundi

1959 1962

1972

1988

1993 1995

 

1996 -- present

50,000 Hutus 150,000 Hutus 25,000 Hutus

50,000 Tutsis, 100,000 Hutus

2001: 5,000

Tutsi government

Tutsi army

Tutsi army

Hutu rebels

Tutsi army

Ethnic, political

7 Genocidal massacres

Sudan

1956 1972,

1983 present

2 million Nuer, Dinka, Christians, Nuba, southerners

2001: 10,000

Khartoum govt NIF government, militias, rebels

Political, religious, racial, ethnic

7 Politicide, Genocide

Democratic Republic of the Congo

1945 -- 1960

1960 1965

1977 1979, 1984

1994 1997

 

 

1997 present

1,000s Africans

1,000s civil war

1,000s civil war

80,000 Hutus, Banyamulenge, 10,000 Hema,Lendu

2 million (civil war)

2001: 80,000

Colonial forces

Rebels, army

Rebels, army

Kabila/ Rwandan army,

Ugandan, Rwandan armies, rebels, DRCongo

& allied armies

Racial, colonial, economic

Political, ethnic

7 Politicide,

Genocidal massacres

Cte dIvoire

1998 present

100s Bambara, Senoufo, Bt, Burkinabe

Govt police, rebels

Ethnic, national,

Religious, political

7 Massacres

Algeria

1954 1963

 

1991 -- present

160,000 OAS, Harkis, settlers

50,000 Berbers

2001: 5,000

French legions, OAS, rebels

Islamic Armed Group (GIA)

Colonial

 

Religious, political

7 Massacres

Liberia

1990 2000

 

2001 -- present

100,000 Krahn, Gio, Mano, etc.

2001: 1,000s

Doe govt army, Taylor rebels Govt, rebels

Political, ethnic

7 Politicide

Uganda

1972 1979,

 

1980 1986

 

1994 present

300,000 Acholi, Lango, Karamoja

250,000 Baganda,

Banyarwanda

1,000s LRA foes

2001: 100s

Amin govt army, police

Obote govt army, police

Lords Resistance Army

Political, ethnic, religious

 

 

 

7 Massacres

Nigeria

1966 1970,

1972 2000 (sporadic)

2001 --present

1 million Ibos

Tiv, Hausa, Yoruba Ogoni, others

2001: 1,000's

Nigerian army

Ethnic mobs

Nigerian army, police

Political, ethnic, religious

6 Preparation

Zimbabwe

1982 84,

1998 present

20,000 Ndebele,

MDC, white farmers

2001: 100s

Govt army 5th Brigade,

ZANU-PF militias

Ethnic, political

6 Preparation

Somalia

1988 present

100,000 Somalis, Isaaq clan

2001: 100s

Warlord/clan militias

Political, clan

6 Preparation

Sierra Leone

1991 present

100,000 (civil war)

 

2001: 1000s

Revolutionary United Front, other militias

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

Rwanda

1959 1963, 1993

1994

 

1995 present

10,000s Tutsi

800,000 Tutsi

1,000s Hutus

2001: 100s

Hutu govt

Hutu Power gov't

Interahamwe

Rwandan govt

Ethnic, political

5 Polarization

Congo-Brazzaville

1959 1968

1997 2000

5,000 Govt foes

1,000s (civil war)

Govt army, police, rebels

Colonial

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

Central African Republic

1966 1979

2001

2,000 Bokassa foes

Govt army, police

Political, ethnic

5 -- Polarization

Ethiopia

1945 1974

 

1974 1979

 

1994 2000

150,000 Oromo, Eritreans, Somali

750,000 Class enemies, Oromo

10,000s (war with Eritrea)

Selassie monarchy

Derg communists

 

Army

National, religious, ethnic

5 Polarization

Eritrea

1960s - 2000

10,000s Eritreans (independence war with Ethiopia)

Ethiopian armies, police

National, religious, ethnic

4 -- Organization

Equatorial Guinea

1975 1979

50,000 Bubi, Nguema foes

Macias Nguema regime

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Senegal Casamance

1990 2001

1,000 Diola (civil war)

Senegalese army, rebels

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Kenya

1952 1960

 

1991 1993

1,500 Kikuyu,

colonials

1,000s Nilotics

Colonial forces

MauMau Kikuyu

Ethnic militias

Ethnic, political

4 Organization

Angola

1961 -- 1962

1975 present

40,000 Kongo, 500,000 Umbundu, Ovimbundu

2001: 5,000

Colonial army

Govt, UNITA armies, allies

Colonial

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Chad

1965 1996

10,000s southern Saras, civil war

Govt army, Libyan army, rebels

Ethnic, racial, religious, political

4 Organization

Morocco- Western Sahara

1976 present

1,000s: Sahrawis

Moroccan army,

Polisario rebels

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Mali

1990 1993

1,000 Touaregs

Malian army, Touareg rebels

Ethnic, political

4 Organization

Mozambique

1975 1994

1 million by MPLA, Renamo

Renamo, MPLA

Political, ethnic

4 Organization

Madagascar

1947 1948

50,000 Malagasy nationalists

French colonial forces

National, racial, political, ethnic

4 -- Organization

South Africa

1987 1996

 

1996 present

1,000s Zulus, Xhosa, ANC

Boer farmers

Govt police, ethnic militias

ethnic militias

Racial, political, ethnic

4 Organization

Botswana

1990 present

100s Kng, Caprivi Namibians

Govt police

Economic, political, ethnic

4 Organization

Egypt

sporadic

100s: Copts

Muslim funda-

mentalists

Religious, political

4 Organization

 

 

 

AMERICAS

 

 

 

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2002

 

Colombia

1948 -- 1958

1975 present

150,000

10,000s

 

2001: 1,000's

Political parties

Marxists, rightist death squads, drug cartels

Political

Political, narcotics cartels

7 Politicide

 

 

Venezuela

1945 1970s,

1,000s Yanomami

Settlers, miners

Racial, ethnic

5 Polarization

 

Brazil

1945 -- 1964

 

1964 1965 sporadic massacres

300,000 Vargas foes, Indians

1,000s: Kayapo, Yanomami, etc.

Govt police, settler militias

Settlers, miners

Political, economic, racial, ethnic

4 Organization

 

Guatemala

1950s 1980s

200,000 Mayans

Govt army, death squads

Racial, ethnic, political

4 Organization

 

Cuba

1945 -- 1959

1959 present

100s rebels

75,000 counter revolutionaries

Rightist govts

Castro govt

Political

4 Organization

 

Argentina

1976 1980

20,000 leftists

Army, police

Racial, ethnic

Political

4 Organization

 

Chil

1973 1976

10,000s leftists

Army, police

Political

4 Organization

 

Nicaragua

1970 1979

1980 1989

1,000s Sandinistas

10,000s Contras

Govt army

Sandinista army

Political

4 Organization

 

El Salvador

1980 1992

10,000s leftists

Army, militias

Political

4 Organization

 

Paraguay

 

1945 1962

1962 1974

1000s Indians 1000 Ach Indians

Army, settlers

Settlers

Racial, ethnic

4 Organization

 

Mexico

 

Chiapas

 

1945 2001

10,000s Indians, govt foes

10,000s Mayans

Army, police

Ethnic, political

4 Organization

 

 

 

ASIA

 

 

 

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2002

 

North Korea

1949 present

2 million +

2001: 10,000's

Govt, army, police

Political, class

7 Politicide

 

India

 

 

Kashmir

1947,

1949 present

(sporadic)

1947 -- present

100,000s Muslims, Hindus

2001: 100s

2001: 1,000's

RSS mobs

Muslim mobs

 

Rebels, police

National, religious, ethnic, political

7 Politicide,

genocidal massacres

 

Peoples Republic of China

1949 1977

 

1977 -- present

35 million class enemies, religious

minorities, Uighurs Muslims, Christians

2001: 1,000s

Maoist communist govt, PRC army, Red Guards, police

executions

Political,national, class,economic, ethnic, religious

7 Politicide

 

 

Sri Lanka

1983 present

1000s: Tamil and Sinhalese civilians

2001: 100's

Anti-Tamil mobs

Tamil Tiger rebels

Ethnic, national, political, religious

7 Politicide

genocidal massacres

 

Burma (Myanmar)

1945 1948

1948 1962

1962 -- 1978

1979 -- present

1,000s rebels

15,000 rebels,govt

100,000 Shan, Muslims, Karen, Christians

2001: 100's

Burma Ind Move

U Nu govt,rebels

Burmese govt

SLORC govt

Ethnic, political, religious

7 Politicide,

genocidal massacres

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

1965

1966 present

 

 

 

 

500,000 communist

10,000s: Aceh

1,000s: Irian Jaya

1,000s: Moluccas

1,000s: Sulewesi

2001: high 1000's

Suharto govt

Suharto govt

& successors

Laskar Jihad

Laskar Jihad

Political, ethnic

Religious, political

Political, religious, ethnic, national

7 Politicide, genocidal massacres

 

 

 

Philippines

1972 present

1,000s pro-govt officials, separatists, communists

Marxists, govt

Army, Moros,

Abu Sayyef

Political, religious

7 Political massacres (by terrorists)

 

Nepal

1996 present

2,600 anti-Maoists

2001: 100's

Maoist rebels

Political

7 Political

massacres

 

Afghanistan

1978 1993

 

1993 1996

1996 2001

 

1996 2001

2001 present

700,000 (civil war)

50,000+

30,000 (civil war)

50,000+ Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara

10,000+

2001: 10,000's

Soviets

Mujahadin

Warlords

Taliban,

Al Queda

NorthernAlliance

Anti-Taliban

Political, national, religious, ethnic

6 Preparation

 

Uzbekistan Fergana Valley

1991 present

1,000s

2001: 100s

Muslim funda-

mentalists

Political, religious

6 Preparation

 

Pakistan

East Pakistan:

(now Bangladesh)

West Pakistan

1947

1971

 

1973 1977

1978 -- present

61,000 Hindus

1,500,000 Bengalis & Hindus

Sindhis

2001: 100s

Muslim mobs

West Pakistani

army

Army

Political, national, ethnic, religious

6 Preparation

 

Tibet

1959 1990s

1,600,000 Tibetan Buddhists

2001: 100s

PRC communist

Chinese govt

National, political, religious, ethnic

5 Polarization

 

Azerbaijan

1988 1994

10,000s Azeris & Armenians

Azeri & Armenian armies

Ethnic, political, religious national

5 Polarization

 

Cambodia

1945 1966

1966 1975

1968 1975

1975 1979

 

 

 

 

1979 1993

1993 present

5,000 kings foes

15,000 Vietnamese

360,000 pro-govt

1.7 2.2 million class enemies, Cham Muslims, city people, Vietnamese,

Eastern Zone

230,000 (civil war)

1,000s govt foes

2001: 100s

Royal govt

Lon Nol govt

Khmer Rouge

Khmer Rouge

 

 

 

 

Samrin govt,KR

Hun Sen govt

Political, class, ethnic, religious, national

5 Polarization

 

French Vietnam

South Vietnam

North Vietnam

 

Peoples Democratic RepublicVietnam

1945 1953

1954 1975

1954 1975

 

1975 present

10,000s leftists

90,000 leftists

1 million class enemies,minorities

10,000s boat people, reeducated

French colonials

South Viet govt

North Viet govt

 

Vietnamese govt

Political, class, ethnic, national

 

 

4 Organization

 

Laos

1945 1960

1960 1975

1975 -- present

10,000s leftists 100,000 anti-

communists, Hmong

2001: 100s

Royalists,French

Pathet Lao

Peoples Demo-

cratic Republic

Political, ethnic

4 - Organization

 

East Timor

1965 2000

200,000 Timorese

Indonesian army,

militias

Political, ethnic, national,religious

4 Organization

 

 

 

EUROPE

 

 

 

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2002

 

Russia Chechnya

 

1943 1957

1994 present

50,000 Chechens

2001: 1,000's

USSR army

Russian Army

Ethnic, national, religious,political

7 Politicide, massacres

 

Yugoslavia: Kosovo

1998 2001

10,000 Albanian Kosovars,

100s Serbs

Yugoslav Army

 

KosovoLibArmy

Ethnic, religious, national, political

5 Polarization

 

Yugoslavia

Croatia

Serbia, Bosnia

(including 1941-1945 relevant to later conflicts)

 

1941 1945

1941 1945

 

1945 1987

1993 2001

650,000 Serbs

 

100,000 Croats, Muslims

1 million Tito foes

1,000s dissidents

Croatian Fascists

(Ustashi)

Serb Partisans

(Chetniks)

Tito govt

Milosevic govt

Political, ethnic, national,religious

8 Denial

5 Polarization

 

Macedonia

1999 - 2001

100s Albanians, Macedonians

Albanian rebels, Macedonia govt

Political, ethnic

5 Polarization

 

Bosnia

1992 1998

200,000 Muslims, Croats, Serbs

Bosnian Serbs,

Croats, Muslims

Ethnic, religious, national, political

5 Polarization

(partition)

 

Georgia:

Abkhasia

1993 present

100s Abkhasians

2001: under 100

Georgian army, separatist rebels

National, ethnic, political

5 Polarization

 

Northern Ireland

1964 present

3000 Catholics, Protestants

2001: under 100

Irish Republic Army, Protestant extremists

Religious, class, political, national

5 Polarization

 

Croatia

1991 1995

50,000 Serbs, Bosnian Muslims

Croat army, militias

Ethnic, national, religious,political

4 - Organization

 

USSR (State no longer exists.)

 

 

 

USSR national minorities, esp. in

Crimea, Dagestan

Ingushetia

1945 1953

 

1945 1947

 

1954 1991

1945 1991

 

15 million class enemies

1 million repatriated

Soviet nationals

6 million dissidents

400,000 Karachai, Meshketians,Balkar

Crimean Tatars, Ingushi

Soviet police, army, NKVD

NKVD, KGB secret police

 

Red Army,

Secret police

Political, national, ethnic, religious

Not applicable (State no longer exists.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MIDDLE EAST

 

 

 

 

NATION

EPISODES

DEATH TOLL

KILLERS

DIVISIONS

STAGE in 2002

 

Israel Palestine

1948 1955, 1956, 1967, 1973,

1987 -- 1993

 

2000 -- present

1,000s Israelis, 1,000s Palestinians

1,162 Palestinians

160 Israelis

2001: 240 Israelis, 777 Palestinians

Irgun, Arab terrorists, Israeli army, police, Fatah, Hamas

National, religious, ethnic, political

7 Politicide,

massacres

 

Iraq

1961 present

190,000 Kurds, Shiites, Kuwaitis

2001: 1,000's

Iraqi army, presidential guard

Political, ethnic, national, religious

8 Denial

7 Genocide

Politicide

 

Turkey

1984 present

10,000s Kurds

2001: 100s

Turkish army

Ethnic, religious, national, political

8 Denial

6 Preparation

 

Syria

1981 1982

21,000 Kurds, Sunni Muslims

Syrian army, police

Political, religious,national

5 Polarization

 

Iran

1953 1978

1978 1992

 

26,000 Shah foes

60,000 Kurds, monarchists, Bahai

Secret police,

Iranian army, revolution guards

Religious, ethnic, political, national

5 Polarization

 

Cyprus

1963 1967

2,000 Turks, Greek Cypriots

Greek Cypriots

Turks

Political, religious, ethnic, national

5 Polarization (partition)

 

Lebanon

1974 1991

55,000 Christians, Muslims, Druze

Religious militias

Hezbollah, Phalangists

Religious, political

5 Polarization

 



[1] Those countries at Stage 7 are currently at the mass killing stage. They have active genocides or politicides, and are identified with bold type. They are erupting. The others are at various stages of dormancy (4 through 6,) but could erupt again. Civilian deaths in 2001 are separately identified. The table is organized by region. Within a region, countries are listed in order of their potential for mass killing, by stages. Not all politicides since 1945 appear on this chart because some countries where politicide has occurred have become democracies (e.g. East Germany, Poland, Romania, Mongolia) and are not now at stage 4 or above. 2002 Gregory H. Stanton, Genocide Watch